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A retrospective prevalence-based approach to assess preterm metabolic consequences of early pregnancy obesity.

Published onJun 15, 2023
A retrospective prevalence-based approach to assess preterm metabolic consequences of early pregnancy obesity.

Purpose: Maternal obesity (MO) is one of the most common health issues in pregnancy, having short and long-term consequences on both the mother and her offspring. Studies in Cameroon have brought out evidences of adverse pregnancy outcome related to MO, but there are still little data on its effects on maternal metabolic profile. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and determinants of early pregnancy obesity (EPO) and its effects on cardiometabolic risk profile at the preterm period.  

Patients and methods: This study was conducted at the antenatal care unit of the Dschang district hospital. Apparently healthy Cameroonian pregnant women at the third trimester of their pregnancy were included in the study. Participants were assessed on sociodemographic, lifestyle parameters, and dietary habits using standardized and structured questionnaires. Early pregnancy weight was collected from medical records. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and biochemical markers were measured using standard procedures. 

Results: This study included 195 pregnant women. The prevalence of EPO was 31.28% (95%CI: 24.85-38.30) associated with age (OR: 1.17 (1.07-1.27); p=0.0002) and dietary habits including regular consumption of raw vegetables at least one day a week (OR: 0.25 (0.10-0.62); p=0.003). EPO significantly affects the blood level of HDL cholesterol on participants, with a significantly lower (p=0.039) concentration on participants with EPO (42.42 ± 25.30 mg/dl) than on normal weight (58.22 ± 43.97 mg/dl) or overweight (55.88 ± 38.64 mg/dl) participants. Simple linear models show a decrease of 1.18 mg/dl in HDL cholesterol concentration with an increase of 1 Kg/m2 in Early Pregnancy Body Mass Index EPB (b=-0.1.18; p=0.02) and a decrease in the overall weight gain with EPB (b=-0.16; p=0.01). 

Conclusion: The prevalence of EPO was 31.28% (95%CI: 24.85-38.30), associated with age and dietary habits. It significantly affects the concentration of HDL cholesterol and the weight gain on the preterm period. 

Key words: Early pregnancy obesity; Pregnancy metabolic profile; Dschang Health District 

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