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Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and its Risk Factors among Population Aged 18 to 50 Years in Kamonyi District, Rwanda

Published onJun 13, 2023
Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and its Risk Factors among Population Aged 18 to 50 Years in Kamonyi District, Rwanda

Diabetes mellitus is metabolic disorder resulting from dysfunction of insulin production, action or both. The latest prevalence figure published by the International Diabetes Federation was 425 million persons living with DM worldwide, with nearly 50% of these undiagnosed in 2017. In Rwanda, there is an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the adult population, which stood at 3.4% in 2017. Therefore, aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors among population aged 18 to 50 years old in, Kamonyi District, Rwanda from January to July 2022. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out; a random sampling technique was used to obtain participants. Information about causes and risk factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. Anthropometric variables, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and blood pressure measured using standard guidelines and the diagnosis of DM were based on the WHO guideline. A total of 450 participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 8% (36 out of 450) also, the prevalence of prediabetes was 6.2% (28 out of 450). Prevalence was high in females (6.6%, n=30) than in males (2.8%, n=13). The age group over 45 years had the highest prevalence of DM 6%, followed by age between 32-45 years, 2%. Participants who currently smoke and smoked had 6% and 2% respectively. Furthermore, for BMI, obese had 4%, overweight and normal had 2% each. Significant associations were found for age, body mass index, and smoking habit. Diabetes History, Gender, Drinking History showed no significant results. In this study prevalence of diabetes mellitus was high than the IDFA projected estimate 3.4% of DM for Rwanda, this result is alarming condition, there might be a large number of people who have DM but are not aware of it. Therefore, targeting the prevention strategy to such modifiable risk factors might reduce the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Public education on DM should be emphasized and routine measurement of blood glucose levels is recommended among adults.

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